Education Acts and Government Schemes in India

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By Education Today

Posted on October 3, 2022


5 min read

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Education Acts and Government Schemes in India

Education plays an important role in the development of an individual and makes him a knowledgeable citizen. India has always been famous for gaining education since the Vedic period. India’s achievements in the field of education from independence till this 21st century are very admirable. Indian education is one of the largest and most complex education systems in the world along with China. India is committed to providing basic education to its citizens, the framework of which is defined in the National Policy of Education. Elementary education is now compulsory in India. At the time of independence, only 14% of India’s population was literate. Now after so many decades since independence, the number of literates has increased by fivefold.

Students in India have several educational rights enshrined in the Constitution. Important among them are:

Free and compulsory education

Education is the fundamental right of every Indian child according to the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009. Article 21-A of the Indian constitution mentions that it is the joint responsibility of the centre and state governments to provide free and compulsory education to children aged between 6 to 14 years.

The Right to Education Act 2009 maps out roles and responsibilities for the centre, state, and all local bodies to rectify gaps in their education system to enhance the quality of education in the country.

Every child in India is entitled to free, compulsory primary education from preschool through class 8 in a nearby school. No child is required to pay any fees or other costs that would keep them from pursuing and finishing their elementary education. To ease the financial burden of attending school, free education also involves the provision of textbooks, clothing, stationery, and special education resources for students with disabilities.

Equality of opportunities in educational organisations

No citizen should be refused admission to an educational institution based on caste, religion, race, language, place of birth, etc. In India, all students must be treated equally in all schools and universities.

Women’s education

The modern Indian education system focuses on making its girls educated. The National Policy on Education, which was first promulgated in 1968 and later matured several times has played a vital role in promoting the education of women in India. The Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao Yojana was launched in 2015 by the Government of India to create awareness around girls’ education and protection of their rights.

Education for weaker sections

The Indian constitution safeguards the educational interests of the weaker sections of society under Articles 15, 17, and 46. The Union government is responsible for the academic and economic development of the scheduled caste and scheduled tribes. In public universities and educational institutes, certain weaker sections are given special leverages in fees.

Government Schemes & Campaigns to Boost Education System in India

  • Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan: Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan (SSA) is the Government of India’s flagship program for the achievement of Universalization of Elementary Education (UEE) in a time-bound manner, as mandated by the 86th amendment to the Constitution of India making free and compulsory education to the children of 6-14 years age group, a fundamental right launched in 2001 to promote ‘Education for All’, strengthening the existing infrastructure of schools and construction of new schools.
  • National Programme for Education of Girls at Elementary Level: It is a focused intervention of the Government of India, to reach the “Hardest to Reach” girls, especially those not in school. NPEGEL is a National Programme for the Education of Girls at the Elementary Level and has been conceived as an amendment to the scheme of Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan for providing additional components for the education of girls at the elementary level.
  • Mid Day Meal Scheme: Itis a school meal program in India designed to better the nutritional standing of school-age children nationwide. The program supplies free lunches on working days for children in primary and upper primary classes in government, government-aided, local body, Education Guarantee Scheme, and alternate innovative education centers, Madarsa and Maqtabs supported under Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan, and National Child Labour Project schools run by the ministry of labor.
  • Rashtriya Madhyamik Shiksha Abhiyan: It is a flagship scheme aiming at enhancing secondary education and increasing the enrolment rate by providing a secondary school within a reasonable distance of every home. It was launched in March 2009. The implementation of the scheme started from 2009-2010 to provide conditions for efficient growth, development, and equity for all. The scheme includes multidimensional research, technical consulting, various implementations, and funding support.
  • Scheme for Infrastructure Development in Minority Institutes: The scheme would facilitate the education of minorities by augmenting and strengthening school infrastructure in minority institutions to expand facilities for formal education to children of minority communities

  • Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao(Save the daughter, educate the daughter): It is a campaign of the Government of India. The scheme to promote girl child education in India. The Beti Bachao, Beti Padhao (BBBP) scheme was launched on 22 January 2015 by PM Narendra Modi. It aims to address the issue of the declining child sex ratio image (CSR) and is a national initiative jointly run by the Ministry of Women and Child Development, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, and the Ministry of Education.

There are many laws for education in India. Moreover, the government has also introduced many schemes for students. But still, many children are denied an education because uneducated parents do not know about these laws. It is essential to sensitise people about the need for compulsory education and such educational schemes. It is also necessary to identify children who are destitute and wander on the streets and make compulsory education.